A double-tapped bushing is more compact than a reducer, but not as flexible.
Caps can be threaded, glued, or soldered onto pipe depending on its material. A coupling is used to extend the run of a pipe, or change pipe sizes in the case of a reducing coupling, also sometimes called a "bell" reducer due to its shape.
Available with female threads, or unthreaded for either plastic gluing solvent welding or copper soldering, these are among the most-used of fittings. If you need to change the direction of flow, elbows are likely your best bet. Produced primarily in 90 and 45 degree angles unique sizes like Street elbows feature male and female threaded ends to easily connect differing pipes or fittings.
Some unique elbows also feature a side outlet , making it act more like a tee with a bend. Flanges are used to connect pipes. Pipe is threaded or welded to the flanges, which are then sealed together usually with bolts. Flange connections are used extensively in industrial applications handling high pressures. They can also be found connecting residential pump systems. Nipples are a short stub of pipe, male-threaded at each end, that are used to connect straight pipe runs.
Close nipples are threaded from each end along their whole length for particularly tight connections. Available in: brass, chrome-plated brass, copper, malleable galvanized and black , PVC, and stainless steel. When more than one branch is required of a water supply, tees are the way to go. When the run of a tee is smaller than the side outlet, it's often referred to as a "bull head" fitting.
Many opt to use two tees instead. Crosses are available in brass, malleable galvanized and black , and PVC. These fittings are used to quickly add a tee to an existing length of pipe, without having to cut and re-solder what's there. Most often, this takes place with irrigation systems to add a new sprinkler line.
Also referred to as snap-tees, saddles are glued to the pipe, and after setting, the new hole is drilled. Saddle tees are offered only in PVC. Unions are an alternative to couplings, when the latter are impractical or inconvenient. Whereas couplings when not soldered need to have pipe threaded into them, unions rely upon their own nut to create a seal between the pipe ends.
This makes them the perfect choice for connecting two fixed pipes that are unable to be threaded into a regular coupling , and make future repairs that much easier. Dielectric unions are used to join pipes of different metals by providing a barrier against galvanic corrosion.
For all their benefits, unions do have drawbacks: they are not to be used with natural and LP gas. While sanitary tees are used with vertical drain connections, they can cause problems when used flat on a horizontal connection: those situations call for a wye. Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene, a black plastic used in drainage, sewer, waste and vents. Made with a mixture of metal alloys: mostly copper and zinc, as well as small amounts of lead, tin, manganese, nickel, aluminum or iron.
Brass works particularly well in hot water applications, and is highly resistant to corrosion. Reddish-brown, non-ferrous metal widely used for household plumbing pipes. Copper is a relatively soft and often thin material, making threading difficult.
As a result, most copper fittings are not threaded, and must be soldered to copper pipe. Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride is a plastic product designed for drinking water at temperatures up to degrees where code permits , and can generally withstand higher temperatures than standard PVC.
Made from steel. Black iron is mostly used in gas and oil applications, and is often coated with black paint or lacquer. Galvanized fittings are coated with zinc to protect against rust and corrosion. Galvanized piping was widely used for home plumbing in the past, but no longer, due to leak issues over time. Galvanized fittings today are most often used for non-potable outdoor applications, and to repair existing galvanized systems. A rigid, generally white plastic pipe. Used for waste and vent systems as well as cold water underground supplies outside of the house as well as used for sprinkler and irrigation pipes, sewers, drains, wastes and venting pipes and fittings.
PVC in the plumbing business is generally white Sch 40 but sometimes comes in other colors in our industry gray is the second most popular, and is typically used for Sch 80 PVC. Another color you may see more frequently as water conservation efforts grow is purple, which is used to differentiate reclaimed or grey water systems from potable drinking water systems. A combination of iron alloys and chromium, stainless steel is durable and offers excellent rust and corrosion resistance.
Stainless steel comes in many types, with and being the most used in plumbing. These valves are either left open or left closed all the time. Throttling valves control the pressure and amount of a fluid. Because this stresses the mechanism, they tend to wear out faster than other valves.
They are usually installed near isolation valves. Y fittings allow the pipes to change their elevations and to branch out into fresh water lines or drains. Wyes are similar to tee fittings but the smoother angling reduces friction and turbulence in the water. This fitting is most commonly used to connect a vertical drainpipe to a horizontal one. I wish I knew about this site while I was still in the hardware business!
It would have been a great training tool for my new and very young employees! Good job!! Thank you so much for the photos and your guide. I am interested in plumbing and worked as a plumber assistant for one year in my country. I hope l can come to the US and live and work there as l love the states and its nation by my heart.
May Jesus Christ help this to be carried out soon, Amen. Thanks man….. There are some parts shown in main picture needs to be explained viz. Thank you. I want to understand pipe material vs fittings vs usage area. Like material to be used for cold water and relevant fittings. Thanks in advance. Thanks for the comment. I am sure, many people will benefit out of this.
I want to understand the pipe material or pipe fittings. Like material to be used in the kitchen area and relevant fittings could you please advise? Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Note: This post may contain affiliate links. This means that at no cost to you, we may receive a small commission for made purchases. Need to Hire a Plumber? Get a free estimate online from top local home service pros in your area.
Table of Contents. Comments The pictures are really helpful. This is so helpful.. The pictures ,names and labelling are useful to see. Thanks so much. Good job. Very useful for beginners and DIYs like me. Thanks Reply.
Glad you found it helpful. Thanks Harold! Hi Mansoor. I wish you the best. Very useful. Specially in a store. Thanks very much especially for us beginners in plumbing. Really Helpful. Thanks V Much. Initially I had a very wrong idea for coupling. Very helpful. Easy and understandable. Thank you very much Reply. Thank you very much for your lessons.
So I need to understand about plumbing materials. Thx Reply. Definitely on the to-do list.
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